Microbiology of Food Fermentations

Fermentation technology is determined as the metabolic process which involves the usage of microorganisms and enzymes for the production of compounds that have application in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industries. Fermentation occurs in certain types of anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and yeast and leads to contamination or spoilage of food. The process of fermentation is important to the food and beverage industries because excess heat and improper cooking can lead to the generation of harmful toxins. The enzymes convert sugars into ethanols. Fermentation is an ancient technology extensively used in the preservation of food. It enhances the self-lifestyle and microbiological safety of food but may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces the toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria have limited metabolic characteristics which were involved in many fermentation processes of milk, meats, cereals, and vegetables. Fermented foods are the food substrates used by edible microorganisms whose enzymes like proteases, amylases, and lipases hydrolyse the polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins to make non-toxic products with aromas. Fermentation plays crucial roles in food processing: (1) Improvement of food substrates biologically with vitamins, protein, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids; (2) a reduction in cooking times and fuel requirements like co, pressed natural gas; (3) preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcoholic, acetic acid, alkaline fermentations, and high salt fermentations; (4) Enrichment of the human dietary through the development of extensively flavors, aromas, and textures in food.

  • Lactic acid fermentation.
  • Ethanol Fermentation/alcohol fermentation.
  • Acetic acid fermentation
  • Alkaline fermentations

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